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Lawrence, Massachusetts

  •   State: 
    Essex County
      County FIPS: 
    42°42′25″N 71°09′49″W
      Area total: 
    7.43 sq mi (19.24 km²)
      Area land: 
    6.93 sq mi (17.95 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.50 sq mi (1.29 km²)
    16 ft (5 m)
    1655; Settled 1655; Incorporated 1847; Incorporated (city) 1853
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    12,863.35 residents per square mile of area (4,966.73/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

The city of Haverhill, Massachusetts, is located on the Merrimack River. It was founded in 1655 by a group of men who wanted to build a dam on the river. In 1847, the city was incorporated as "Merrimac" and the name was changed to "Lawrence" in honor of the city's founder, William Lawrence. The city was the site of the first U.S. strike in 1912, when workers from several countries walked out of their jobs to protest the poor conditions. The strike was the first of its kind in the United States, and was followed by a series of strikes in the 1930s and 1940s. The town's name comes from the word Lawrence, which means "lawrence" or "law" in English. It is also the name of a street, which was named after the town of Lawrence, Massachusetts. The name of the street is now known as "Haverhill Road" and it is located in the north of the town, near where the river runs through the center of town. The street is named after a street in the town that was once known as Haverhills, which is where the town was founded by the men who built the first dam in the early 1600s. In the early 1800s, the area was known as the "Methuen River" because it was the only source of water for the area. The river is now the source of the water supply for the city, which has been used to power the city since.


Lawrence was a wool-processing center until that industry declined in the 1950s. In 1912, the Bread and Roses Strike was one of the more important, widely reported, labor struggles in American history. The population of Lawrence declined from over 80,000 residents in 1950 to approximately 64,000 in 1980. The city is located on the Merrimack River, which was once home to the Pennacook or Pentucket tribe of Native Americans. The area that would become Lawrence was then part of Methuen and Andover. The name "Lawrence" was merely chosen as a token of respect to Abbott Lawrence, who it cannot be verified ever saw the city named after him. It is now a suburb of Boston, with a population of around 50,000. The town is home to a number of colleges and universities, including Harvard, MIT, and the University of Massachusetts, Boston. The Lawrence River runs through the center of the city, and is the site of the Great Stone Dam, which is the largest dam in the United States. It was also the location of the Battle of the Bulge, which took place in 1864. The current city hall is located in the former home of John F. Kennedy, who served as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts from 1913-1962. It also is the home of the National Museum of American History, which houses a collection of historic photographs of the area, including some of the oldest buildings in the city. The National Park Service has a park on the site.


Lawrence is on both sides of the Merrimack River, approximately 26 miles (42 km) upstream from the Atlantic Ocean. The highest point in Lawrence is the top of Tower Hill in the northwest corner of the city, rising approximately 240 feet (73 m) above sea level. Lawrence is approximately 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Newburyport, 30 miles (48 km) north-northwest of Boston and 27 miles (43 km) southeast of Manchester, New Hampshire. The city has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), which is typical for the southern Merrimacks valley region in eastern Massachusetts. The Great Stone Dam, which lies across the entireMerrimack and was, at the time of its construction in the 1840s, the largest dam in the world, is located on the south side of the river. Lawrence has two power canals that were formerly used to provide hydropower to the millsone on the north bank of the River, the other on theSouth. Most industrial activity was concentrated in the flatlands along the rivers. Den Rock Park, a wooded conservation district on the southern edge of Lawrence that spans the Lawrence-Andover town line, provides recreation for nature lovers and rock-climbers alike. There are also several small parks throughout town. The town is bordered by North Andover to the east, and And over to the south and southwest. The Spicket River, which flows into the Merimack from Methuen, and the Shawsheen River, which forms the southeastern border of the City.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Census, the city's population is 76,377, the population density is 10,973.7 per square mile (4237/km²), and there are 27,137 households (25,181 occupied) The racial makeup of the city in 2016 was 16.6% non-Hispanic white, 7.8% Black or African American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Native American or Pacific Islander, 1.9% mixed or other. Mayor Daniel Rivera said the city was "approximately 75% Spanish" where an incident where an English-speaking person spoke Spanish was reported. The median income for a household in the city is $29.994, and the median income. for a family is $50.046. The city has a population of 89,143, and it is expected to reach 90,000 by the 2020 United States census. It is the largest city in New Jersey, with an estimated population of 80,000, according to the 2010 Census. It has a median age of 30.0 years, and a population density of 10,351.4 people per squaremile (3,996.5/ km²) The city is located on the New Jersey Turnpike, which runs from New Jersey to Staten Island. It also has a New Jersey River, which flows through the city and into New Jersey. It was the site of a World War II-era battle between the United States and Germany.


Charm Sciences, which manufactures test kits and systems for antibiotic, veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, pesticides, alkaline phosphatase, pathogens, end-product microbial assessment, allergen control, and ATP hygiene, has a laboratory in Lawrence. New Balance has a shoe manufacturing plant in Lawrence, one of five plants operating in the US. The city is home to the University of Lawrence, which has a history of being one of the first colleges in the U.S. to admit women. The town is also home to Lawrence University, which was founded in 1881. The university has a reputation for being a leader in the field of science and technology. It is also the home of the Lawrence High School, which opened in 1883. The school was the first in the state to offer a degree in science and engineering. It was also the first to offer an associate degree in physics, which it has since passed. It also has a chapter in the history of the American Museum of Natural History, which dates back to 1875. The museum is the only one of its kind in the United States, and has a collection of more than 2,000 pieces of art and other works of art from around the world. It has also been the site of numerous scientific conferences, including the American Chemical Society and the American Society for Microbiology and Infection Control, among others. The Lawrence area has a population of just over 1,000 people, making it one of only a handful of cities in the country to have a large number of such a large-scale plant.

Arts and culture

The Lawrence Public Library was established in 1872. In fiscal year 2008, the city of Lawrence spent 0.55% ($1,155,597) of its budget on its public library. The library costs approximately $16 per person, per year ($19.60 adjusted for inflation in 2021). An Italian feast that is held every Labor Day weekend along Common Street is called the "Feast of the Three Saints" The city has a number of museums, galleries, and other public spaces that are open to the public. The city also has a state park, a state museum, and a community works center. The town has a large Hispanic population, which is known as the "Hispanics of Lawrence" The town also has an art museum, a history center, a park, and an experiment station. It is located on the edge of the town of Lawrence, New Jersey, and is home to the Lawrence Art Museum and the Lawrence Museum of Art. The Lawrence River runs through the town. The river is used for water supply and irrigation, as well as for recreational activities. It was built in the early 1900s as a reservoir for the city's water supply. It has been converted into a reservoir in the late 20th century, and now has a water intake system. It also serves as a tourist attraction, with a water tower and a reservoir. The community has a lot of cultural sites, including a cemetery and a park. The City of Lawrence has a history of being involved in the arts and culture, and has a strong Hispanic population.


Lawrence is one of Essex County's two county seats, along with Salem. It is home to a juvenile, district and superior court, as well as a regional office of the Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles. Lawrence has a "strong mayor", which is one directly elected by the voters to be the city's executive. There are nine city councilors and six school committee members; most are elected by district; three city council members are elected at large. The city council chooses one of its number as president who serves as chair of the council. All elections are non-partisan. The current mayor is Brian A. De Peña, who has been in office since 2008. Lawrence also elects three members to the Greater Lawrence Technical School Committee these members areelected at-large. City Council and Mayoral terms of office begin in the month of January. The mayor serves as the seventh member of the school committee and is the head of the Lawrence Police Department. The City Council is made up of nine members, three of whom are elected partly at large and partly from districts or wards of the city. It has a mayor-council government and a state government. It also has a federal government, with three members in the U.S. House of Representatives and one in the United States Senate. The Mayor is Brian De Peñas, who was elected in 2008 and is currently serving his third term. He has been the mayor of Lawrence since 2008 and served his first term in office in 2010.


The city has a public school system managed by Lawrence Public Schools. In November 2011, the Lawrence Public schools was placed into state receivership by the Massachusetts Board of Elementary & Secondary Education. The city is home to the Lawrence High School, a regional technical high school serving the four communities of Andover, Lawrence, Methuen and North Andover. It also has the Lawrence Family Development Charter School and the Community Day Charter Public School. It is also the home of the Northern Essex Community College and the Cambridge College of the Arts. The Lawrence Public School system was placed in receivership in November 2011. The school system is managed by the Lawrence public schools, which were placed into receivership on November 1, 2011. It has a high school, a charter school, and a community college. The schools are located in Andover and Lawrence, as well as the towns of MethuEN and North andover. The public schools are managed by Lawrence Public Schools and the community college is run by the Cambridge College of The Arts. They are called Lawrence Community Schools and Lawrence Community College. The high schools are run by Lawrence High and the charter schools are called Community Day Public School and Lawrence Family development Charter School. The community college offers the Lawrence College of Arts and Sciences, which was founded in the 1960s. It was the first community college in the state. The town has a number of private schools, including the Lawrence School for the Arts, which opened in the 1970s. The state's public schools were established in the 1980s.


Lawrence lies along Interstate 495, which passes through the eastern portion of the city. The city is the western hub of the Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority's bus service. It is also home to the Lawrence stop along the Haverhill/Reading Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail system. Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine is available eight miles to the northeast in Haver Hill. Lawrence is approximately equidistant from Manchester-Boston Regional Airport and Logan International Airport. Lawrence General Hospital, founded in 1875, is the city's main hospital, providing service to much of the area south of theCity. Lawrence Municipal Airport provides small plane service, though it is actually in neighboring North Andover. Lawrence Correctional Alternative Center is a regional alternative jail for low-risk offenders. Lawrence has its own police and fire departments, and Lawrence General hospital provides ambulance services to the city, as well as the Andover barracks of Troop A of the Massachusetts State Police, which serves several towns just south of Andover, and the Greater Lawrence Family Health Center. The town is also served by the Casey Bridge (bringing Parker Street and access to Route 114 and the Lawrence MBTA station to the north shore) and the Duck Bridge (which brings Union Street across the river), and the double-decked O'Reilly Bridge, bringing I-495 across the River. Lawrence also has a public works and trash pickup departments, as do several other nearby towns, including Methuen and Lowell.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts = 36.8. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 13. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 10. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Lawrence = 3.2 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 89,143 individuals with a median age of 31.7 age the population dropped by -3.42% in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 12,863.35 residents per square mile of area (4,966.73/km²). There are average 2.96 people per household in the 23,205 households with an average household income of $32,087 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 17.30% of the available work force and has dropped -5.15% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 12.40%. The number of physicians in Lawrence per 100,000 population = 202.3.


The annual rainfall in Lawrence = 42 inches and the annual snowfall = 46 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 111. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 198. 83 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 16.3 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 50, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts which are owned by the occupant = 30.09%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 59 years with median home cost = $152,460 and home appreciation of -6.21%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $11.64 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $8,801 per student. There are 13.4 students for each teacher in the school, 1743 students for each Librarian and 330 students for each Counselor. 4.22% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 5.74% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 4.02% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Lawrence's population in Essex County, Massachusetts of 62,559 residents in 1900 has increased 1,42-fold to 89,143 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 51.63% female residents and 48.37% male residents live in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts.

    As of 2020 in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts are married and the remaining 53.36% are single population.

  • 23.9 minutes is the average time that residents in Lawrence require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    64.82% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 21.97% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 6.38% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.04% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts, 30.09% are owner-occupied homes, another 64.20% are rented apartments, and the remaining 5.71% are vacant.

  • The 59.56% of the population in Lawrence, Essex County, Massachusetts who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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