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City of Tucson

  •   State: 
    Pima County
      County FIPS: 
    32°13′18″N 110°55′35″W
      Area total: 
    241.33 sq mi
      Area land: 
    241.01 sq mi (624.22 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.32 sq mi (0.82 km²)
    2,389 ft (728 m)
    1775; Settled 1300
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Tucson, AZ
    Mountain Standard Time (MST) UTC-7:00; Arizona does not observe daylight saving time.
      ZIP codes: 

    Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    2,251.44 residents per square mile of area (869.29/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Tucson (; Spanish: Tucson, O'odham: Cuk-on) is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States. It is the second largest city in Arizona behind Phoenix, with a population of 542,629 in the 2020 United States census. The population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is 1,043,433. The city is 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (97 km) north of the U.S.Mexico border. Tucson served as the capital of the Arizona Territory from 1867 to 1877. In 2017, Tucson was the first American city to be designated a "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO. The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón [tukson], is derived from the O’odham Cuk on [tk n], meaning "(at the) base of the black [hill]", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo", and "Optics Valley," the latter referring to its optical science and telescopes known worldwide. It was included in the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821. In 1853, the United States acquired a 29,670 square miles (76,840 km²) region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico from Mexico under the Gadsden Purchase.


Tucson is the primary city name, but also Catalina, Saddlebrooke are acceptable city names or spellings. The official name is City of Tucson. Paleo-Indians were known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Spanish Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino first visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were repeatedly mounted by the Apache. Eventually the town came to be called Tucsón, a Spanish version of the O'odham word for the area. In time, the name of the town became standardized in English in its current form, where the stress is on the first syllable, the "u" is long, and the "c" is silent. In 1882, Morgan Earp was fatally shot in what was later referred to in the press as "the Earp-Clanton Tragedy." Marietta Spence, wife of one of the Cochise County Cowboys, testified at the coroner's inquest on Earp's killing. The coroner's jury concluded Pete Spilwell and Frank Stilwell were the prime suspects in the assassination of Earp. The US Army Fort Lowell, then east of Tucson, was established in 1882 to help protect settlers and travelers from Apache attacks. The town was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It was established as a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and operated until the line was shut down in March 1861. It became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail in 1858.


Tucson is the largest city in southern Arizona, and the second largest in the state after Phoenix. The 2010 United States census puts the city's population at 520,116 with a metropolitan area population at 980,263. The city is built along the Santa Cruz River, formerly a perennial river. The highest point in the area is Mount Wrightson, found in the Santa Rita Mountains at 9,453 ft (2,881 m) above sea level. I-19 is the only Interstate highway that uses "kilometer posts" instead of "mileposts" However, speed limits are marked in miles per hour and kilometers per hour. As of 2015, The Greater Tucson Metro area has exceeded a population of 1 million. Tucson was developed by European Americans on a grid plan starting in the late 19th century. It is located on an alluvial plain in the Sonoran Desert, surrounded by five minor ranges of mountains: the Santa Catalina Mountains and the Tortolita Mountains to the north, theSanta Rita Mountains to. the south, the Rincon Mountains to east and the Tucson mountains to the west. In 2009, Tucson ranked as the 32nd-largest city and 52nd- largest metropolitan area in the United States. The Tucson Mountains include 4,687 ft (1,429 m) Wasson Peak and Mount Lemmon, the southernmost ski destination in the continental U.S., while the Tucson Mountains are located to the south of Nogales, Mexico.


As of the census of 2010, there were 520,116 people, 229,762 households, and 112,455 families residing in the city. There were 209,609 dwelling units at an average density of 1,076.7 per square mile (415.7/km²) The racial makeup of the city was 69.7% White (down from 94.8% in 1970), 5.0% Black or African-American, 2.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 41.6% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 47.2%. Mexican Americans made up 36.1%. Tucson has the lowest level of black-white segregation of any of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. According to research by demographer William H. Frey using data from the 2010 U.S. census, Tucson has a low percentage of African-Americans. The city's median income was $30,981, and the median income for a family was $37,344. The per capita income for the city is $16,322. About 13.7%. of families and 18.4%. of the residents were below the poverty line, including 23.6. of those under age 18 and 11.0%. of those age 65 or over. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 96.0 males. ForEvery 100 females age 18. and over,there were 93.3 males.


The University of Arizona is the city's largest employer. Davis-Monthan Air Force Base also provides many jobs for Tucson residents. Tourism is another major industry in Tucson. Roughly 150 Tucson companies are involved in the design and manufacture of optics and optoelectronics systems, earning Tucson the nickname "Optics Valley" The city of Tucson is also a major hub for the Union Pacific Railroad's Sunset Route that links the Los Angeles ports with the South/Southeast regions of the country. The city's many resorts, hotels and attractions bring in $2 billion per year and over 3.5 million visitors annually. The Tucson Gem and Mineral Show, and its associated shows, are held generally in the first two weeks of February. These associated shows (such as gems, jewelry, beads, fossils) are held throughout the city, with 43 different shows in 2010. This makes Tucson's the largest such exposition in the world. Its yearly economic impact in 2015 was evaluated at $120 million. In addition to vacationers, many winter residents, or "snowbirds", are attracted to Tucson's mild winters and live here on a seasonal basis. Snowbirds often purchase second homes in Tucson and nearby areas, contributing significantly to the property tax base. The top employers in the city are:According to Tucson’s 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers are: Raytheon Missiles and Defense (formerly Hughes Aircraft Co.), Texas Instruments, IBM, Intuit Inc., Universal Avionics, Honeywell Aerospace, Sunquest Information Systems, Sanofi-Aventis, Ventana Medical Systems, Inc., and Bombardier Aerospace.

Arts and culture

The Tucson Gem and Mineral Show is one of the largest gem and mineral shows in the world. The Tucson Folk Festival highlights over 100 local and regional musicians on five stages. Modernism Week includes more than 30 programs, lectures, exhibits, parties and events in the Tucson area. The Fiesta de los Vaqueros marks the beginning of the rodeo season in the United States. For one weekend every October for 30 years, the Tucson Meet Yourself festival has celebrated the city's ethnicities. The Historic Preservation Foundation hosts the Tucson Historic Preservation Week in the first two weekends of October each year. The city is home to the National Museum of American History, the Arizona Museum of Natural History, and the Arizona State Museum of History and Ethnology. The Arizona State University Museum of Art and Science hosts the Arizona Art & Science Festival in the spring and summer. The University of Arizona hosts the annual Tucson Festival of Books in March, which has become the fourth largest book festival in the U.S. with 450 authors and 80,000 attendees. There are two Fourth Avenue Street Fairs, in December and late March/early April, staged between 9th Street and University Boulevard, that feature arts and crafts booths, food vendors and street performers. The Fourth Avenue street fairs began in 1970 when Fourth Avenue had half a dozen thrift shops, several New Age bookshops and the Food Conspiracy Co-Op, and a few merchants put tables in front of their stores to attract customers before the holidays. The street fair has grown into a large corporate event, with most tables owned by outside merchants.


Tucson is not represented in any of the five major sports leagues of the United States; the NFL, MLB, the NBA, the NHL, or MLS. The University of Arizona Wildcats teams, most notably the men's basketball and women's softball teams have strong local interest. Tucson is also host to the Mobile Mini Sun Cup, the largest pre-season Major League Soccer (MLS) tournament in the country. The city has more than 120 parks, from small and local to larger parks with ballfields, natural areas, lakes, 5 public golf courses, and Reid Park Zoo. "The Loop" is a popular system of walking/running/bicycling/horseback trails encircling the city primarily along washes, and it is usually well separated from traffic. Several scenic parks and points of interest are also nearby, including the Tucson Botanical Gardens, Tohono Chul Park, Saguaros National Park, and Sabino Biosphere Park, near the town of Oracle. The lower half of the city is steep, reaching a final elevation of 2,340 ft (340 ft) where it looks over the most of Tucson. The upper half is a much gradual slope compared to the steep upper half of Tucson where it reaches a final height of 1,340ft (340ft) The city is 25 miles north (40 km) of Lemmon Hill, which is 1.5 miles up hill (3 miles into two parts), divided into two full parts.

Politics and government

Tucson and Pima County support the Democratic Party, while the state's largest metropolitan area, greater Phoenix, has traditionally supported the Republican Party. In 2013, Tucson became the second city in Arizona to approve of civil unions for same-sex partners. The six-member city council holds exclusive legislative authority, and shares executive authority with the mayor, who is elected by the voters independently of the council. An appointed city manager is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the city. Tucson is known for being a trailblazer in voluntary partial publicly financed campaigns. Both mayoral and council candidates have been eligible to receive matching public funds from the city since 1985. The U.S. Postal Service operates post offices in Tucson. The city center is in the 3rd District, represented by Raul Grijalva, a Democrat, since 2003. The more affluent residential areas to the south and east are in the 2nd District,represented by Democrat Ann Kirkpatrick since 2019. The exurbs north and west between Tucson and Phoenix in the 1st District are represented by Democrat Tom O'Halleran since 2016. The Tucson Main Post Office is at 1501 South Cherrybell Stravenue. The mayor of Tucson is Regina Romero (D) who was sworn into office on December 2, 2019, succeeding Jonathan Rothschild (D), who took office in 2011. The council members and the mayor serve four-year terms; none face term limits. Council members are nominated by their wards via a ward-level primary held in August. The top vote-earners from each party compete at-large for their ward's seat on the November ballot.


Tucson is home to the University of Arizona, the second largest university in the state with over 36,000 students. Pima Community College has ten campuses. Tucson High School had the largest enrollment of any secondary school in the United States in 1956, with a total of more than 6,800 students. The Tucson Unified School District (TUSD) has the second highestrollment of any school district in Arizona, behind Mesa. There are also many publicly funded charter schools with a specialized curriculum. Tucson has a rapidly growing population and a rapidly expanding population of people living in the Tucson area. The city has a population of 1.2 million people, making it one of the largest cities in the U.S. with a population exceeding 1 million people. The population of the Tucson metropolitan area is 1.3 million people (or 1.4 million people in the city of Phoenix). The city's population is 2.6 million (or 2.7 million in the Phoenix metro area) and the population of Tucson has risen to 1.8 million (or 2.1 million) in the last decade. The City of Tucson is the largest city in Arizona by population, with 1.9 million residents (or 3.7million in the metro area). The population is also the largest in Arizona in terms of percentage of people who live in the City of Phoenix. The number of residents living in Tucson has grown from 1.5 million in 2000 to 2.2million in 2010.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona = 86.1. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 48. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 91. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Tucson = 6.5 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 542,629 individuals with a median age of 33.9 age the population grows by 10.48% in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 2,251.44 residents per square mile of area (869.29/km²). There are average 2.43 people per household in the 213,174 households with an average household income of $36,886 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is of the available work force and has dropped -2.11% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 26.58%. The number of physicians in Tucson per 100,000 population = 252.7.


The annual rainfall in Tucson = 11.2 inches and the annual snowfall = 0.7 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 48. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 286. 100 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 37.5 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 45, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona which are owned by the occupant = 49.52%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 31 years with median home cost = $136,920 and home appreciation of -11.75%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $10.37 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,615 per student. There are 52.7 students for each teacher in the school, 454 students for each Librarian and 520 students for each Counselor. 6.68% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 13.96% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 9.13% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Tucson's population in Pima County, Arizona of 7,531 residents in 1900 has increased 72,05-fold to 542,629 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 50.81% female residents and 49.19% male residents live in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona.

    As of 2020 in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona are married and the remaining 51.78% are single population.

  • 23.5 minutes is the average time that residents in Tucson require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    71.47% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 15.64% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 3.34% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.84% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona, 49.52% are owner-occupied homes, another 42.32% are rented apartments, and the remaining 8.16% are vacant.

  • The 43.85% of the population in Tucson, Maricopa County, Arizona who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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