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City of Mobile

  •   State: 
    Mobile County
      County FIPS: 
    30°41′40″N 88°02′35″W
      Area total: 
    180.07 sq mi
      Area land: 
    139.48 sq mi (361.26 km²)
      Area water: 
    40.59 sq mi (105.14 km²)
    33 ft (10 m)
    1702; Incorporated (town) January 20, 1814; Incorporated (city) December 17, 1819
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Mobile, AL
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    1,340.97 residents per square mile of area (517.75/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Mobile (moh-BEEL, French: [mbil] (listen)) is a city and the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States. The population within the city limits was 187,041 at the 2020 census, down from 195,111 at the 2010 census. It is the fourth-most-populous city in Alabama, after Huntsville, Birmingham, and Montgomery. Mobile is the largest city in the MobileDaphneFairhope Combined Statistical Area, with a total population of 661,964. Mobile was founded in 1702 by the French as the first capital of Louisiana. Mobile became a part of the United States in 1813, with the annexation by President James Madison of West Florida from Spain. During the American Civil War, the city surrendered to Federal forces on April 12, 1865, after Union victories at two forts protecting the city. Mobile has several art museums, a symphony orchestra, professional opera, professional ballet company, and a large concentration of historic architecture. The city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay. Alabama's French Creole population celebrated this festival from the first decade of the 18th century. Beginning in 1830, Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society to celebrate with a parade in the U.S. (in New Orleans, such a group is called a krewe). In 1704, the ship Pélican delivered 23 women to the French colony; most of the passengers had contracted yellow fever at a stop in Havana.


Mobile is the primary city name, but also Brookley Field, Brookley Fld are acceptable city names or spellings. The official name is City of Mobile. The city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay. Although it is debated by Alabama historians, they may have been descendants of the Native American tribe whose small fortress town, Mabila, was used to conceal several thousand native warriors before an attack in 1540 on the expedition of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. About seven years after the founding of the French Mobile settlement, the Mobile Tribe, along with the Tohomé, gained permission from the colonists to settle near the fort. The city was named after the Mobile, a tribe of Native Americans who lived near Mobile Bay, and the town of Mobile, which was founded by the French in 17th century. The name Mobile is now part of the city's official name, Mobile, Alabama. It is also known as Mobile, Mississippi, and Mobile, Georgia. It was the site of the Mobile Bay Battle of 1540, in which several thousand Native Americans were killed by the Spanish. The Mobile Bay Massacre, which took place in 1541, was the deadliest Native American attack on the Spanish in the United States, killing more than 1,000 people. The town was named in honor of the slain Native American warriors, who were known as the Mobile Indians. The word Mobile is also used to refer to the Mobile River, which runs through the city. The river was once a source of water for the Mobile area, but is now used as a shipping channel.


In 1702, French colonists built Fort Louis de la Louisiane as the first capital of the French colony of La Louisiane. Mobile's Roman Catholic parish was established on July 20, 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Bishop of Quebec. The population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708, yet shrinking to 178 persons two years later due to disease. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, which Britain won, defeating France. France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain. This area was made a part of the expanded British West Florida colony. During the American Revolutionary War, West Florida and Mobile became a refuge for loyalists fleeing the other colonies. The Spanish captured Mobile during the Battle of Fort Charlotte in 1780, as part of this campaign. The city was included in the Alabama Territory in 1817, after Mississippi was granted statehood in 1819. Mobile was well situated for trade, as its location served as a principal navigational system for the Alabama River. The first permanent Jewish settlers came to Mobile in 1763 as a result of the new British rule and religious tolerance. Most of these colonial-era Jews in Mobile were merchants and traders from Sephardic Jewish communities in Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina; they added to the commercial development of Mobile. By the time the city was part of Alabama in 1813, the population had dwindled to roughly 300 people.

Geography and climate

Mobile is located in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Alabama. It is 168 miles (270 km) southwest of Montgomery, the state capital; 58 miles (93 km) west of Pensacola, Florida; and 144 miles (232 km) northeast of New Orleans. The elevation in Mobile ranges from 10 feet (3 m) on Water Street in downtown to 211 feet (64 m) at the Mobile Regional Airport. Mobile is the wettest city in the contiguous 48 states, with 66.3 inches (1,680 mm) of average annual rainfall over a 30-year period. Snow is rare in Mobile, with its last snowfall occurring on December 8, 2017. Mobile suffered millions of dollars in damage from Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005, which damaged much of the Gulf Coast cities. The city suffered a major natural disaster on the night of September 12, 1979, when category-3 Hurricane Frederic passed over the heart of the city. Mobile's geographical location on the Gulf of Mexico provides a mild subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and mild, rainy winters. The record low temperature was 1 °F (18 °C), set on February 13, 1899, and the record high was 105°F (41 °C) in August 2000. On December 25, 2012, a large wedge tornado touched down in the city, causing damage or destruction to at least 100 structures. The heaviest damage to houses was along Carlen Street, Rickarby Place, Dauphin Street, Old Shell Road, Margaret Street, Silverwood Street, and Springhill Avenue.


Mobile's French and Spanish colonial history has given it a culture distinguished by French, Spanish, Creole, African and Catholic heritage. Carnival in Mobile evolved over the course of 300 years from a beginning as a sedate French Catholic tradition into the mainstream multi-week celebration. Carnival celebrations end at midnight on Mardi Gras, a moveable feast related to the timing of Lent and Easter. Mobile's official cultural ambassadors are the Azalea Trail Maids, meant to embody the ideals of Southern hospitality.Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) and Back Roads (1981) were shot in Mobile. Mobile has the oldest celebration, dating to the early 18th century during the French colonial period. In 1830 Mobile's Cowbellion de Rakin Society was the first formally organized and masked mystic society to celebrate with a parade. The Striker's Independent Society, formed in 1843, is the oldest surviving mystic society in the United States. In 2002, Mobile's Tricentennial celebrated with parades that represented all of the city's mystic societies. The National African American Archives and Museum features the history of African-American participation in Mardigras. The Mobile Public Library serves Mobile and Mobile County; its large local history and genealogy division is housed in a facility next to the newly restored Holy Family Catholic Church and Media Center. The University of South Alabama Archives houses primary source material relating to the history. of Mobile and southern Alabama, as well as the university's university's history.


Mobile has more than 45 public parks within its limits, with some that are of special note. The Mobile Botanical Gardens feature a variety of flora spread over 100 acres (40 ha) The Mobile Medical Museum is housed in the historic French colonial-style Vincent-Doan House (1827) The 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center is a facility that allows visitors to learn about and access the Mobile, Tensaw, Apalachee, Middle, Blakeley, and Spanish rivers. Spanish Plaza is a downtown park that honors the Spanish phase of the city between 1780 and 1813. It features the Ar of Friendship, presented to Mobile by the city of Málaga, Spain. The city currently has nine major historic districts: Old Dauphin Way, Oakleigh Garden, Leinkin Street, Deonti Tonti, Tinkham Square, Leighton Square, and Leighton Park. It also has the largest of the parks at 720 acres (291 ha), features natural spaces, and contains the Mobile Museum of Art, Playhouse and Botanical Garden in the Playhouse Park. Mobile is home to the Battleship Memorial Park, which features the World War II era battleship USS Alabama, the Korean War and Vietnam War Memorials, and other historical military equipment. It is also home to an aquarium which illustrates the four habitats of the Mobile Bay ecosystem: the river delta, bay, barrier islands and Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf Coast Exploreum Science Center features permanent and traveling exhibits, an IMAX dome theater, a digital 3D virtual theater, and a hands-on chemistry laboratory.


The 2010 United States Census determined that there were 195,111 people residing within the city limits of Mobile. Mobile is the center of Alabama's second-largest metropolitan area, which consists of all of Mobile County. Metropolitan Mobile is estimated to have a population of 413,936 in 2012. As of the 2020 United States census, there were 187,041 people, 77,628 households, and 41,260 families residing in the city. Non-Hispanic Whites were 43.9% of the population in 2010, down from 62.1% in 1980. Estimated same-sex couple households comprised 0.3% of all households in 2010. The average household size was 2.4 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age was 35.7 years. The male population was 47.0% and the female population was 53.0%. The median income for a household in theCity was $37,056 for 2006 to 2010, and the per capita income for the city was $22,401. The age distribution of the city in 2010 consisted of 6.7% under the age of five years, 75.9%. over 18, and 13.7%. over 65. The racial makeup of the City was 50.6% Black or African American, 45.0%, 1.8% Asian, 1.3%. Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 0,9% from other races, 1,4% from two or more races, and 2. 4% Latino.


Since 1985 the government of Mobile has consisted of a mayor and a seven-member city council. The mayor is elected at-large, and the council members are elected from each of the seven city council single-member districts (SMDs) A supermajority of five votes is required to conduct council business. Municipal elections are held every four years and are nonpartisan. Sam Jones was elected in 2005 as the first African-American mayor of Mobile. He ran for a third term in 2013 but was defeated by Sandy Stimpson. Stimpson took office on November 4, 2013, and was re-elected on August 22, 2017. As of January 2022, the city council is made up of Cory Penn from District 1, William Carroll from District 2, C.J. Small from District 3, Ben Reynolds from District 4, Joel Daves from District 5, Scott Jones from District 6, and Gina Gregory from District 7. The current mayor is Arthur R. Outlaw, who served his second term as mayor from 1985 to 1989. His first term had been under the old system, from 1967 to 1968. Mike Dow defeated Outlaw in the 1989 election, serving as mayor for four terms, from 1989 to 2005. His "The String of Pearls" initiative, a series of projects designed to stimulate redevelopment of the city's core, is credited with reviving much of downtown Mobile. Upon his retirement, Dow endorsed Sam Jones as his successor. He was elected for a second term in 2009 without opposition.


Public schools in Mobile are operated by the Mobile County Public School System. Mobile also has a large number of private schools, most of them parochial in nature. The University of South Alabama is a public, doctoral-level university established in 1963. Spring Hill College, the University of Mobile, Faulkner University, and Bishop State Community College are all accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Several post-secondary vocational institutions have a campus in Mobile, including the Alabama Institute of Real Estate, American Academy of Hypnosis, and Charles Academy of Beauty Culture. The Alabama School of Mathematics and Science on Dauphin Street in Mobile was founded in 1989 to identify, challenge, and educate future leaders. The State of Alabama operates a high school for advanced Alabama high school students, which is located in Mobile. The Mobile campus of Bishop State has four campuses in Mobile and offers a wide array of associate degrees. It also offers associate degrees in Business Administration, Business Information Systems, Computer & Information Science, Criminal Justice, Informatics, Legal Studies, Arts, and Science. It is the third oldest Jesuit college in the U.S. and the first Catholic college in southeastern United States. It was chartered in 1830 and offers graduate programs in Business, Education, Liberal Arts, Nursing (MSN), and Theological Studies. It has a four-year private Baptist-affiliated university in the neighboring city of Prichard that wasfounded in 1961. It consists of the College of Arts and Sciences, School of Business, and School of Christian Studies.


Mobile serves the central Gulf Coast as a regional center for medicine, with over 850 physicians and 175 dentists. There are four major medical centers within the city limits. Mobile Infirmary Medical Center has 704 beds and is the largest nonprofit hospital in the state. Springhill Medical Center, with 252 beds, is Mobile's only for-profit facility. BayPointe Hospital and Children's Residential Services, with 94-beds, is the only psychiatric hospital inThe city has a broad array of outpatient surgical centers, emergency clinics, home health care services, assisted-living facilities and skilled nursing facilities. In 2008, the University of South Alabama opened the USA Mitchell Cancer Center Institute. The center is home to the first academic cancer research center in theCentral Gulf Coast region. The city also has a number of other health care facilities, such as the Children's and Women's Hospital, which is dedicated exclusively to the care of women and minors. It is also home to an age-segregated involuntary hospital unit for adults undergoing evaluation ordered by the Mobile Probate Court. It houses a residential unit for children, an acute units for children and adolescents, and an acute unit for people undergoing evaluation for drug and alcohol abuse. It also has an outpatient surgical center, an emergency clinic, and home health Care Services, which provides care for the elderly, the disabled, and the chronically ill. It was founded in 1975 and has over 1,000 staff members, including more than 100 nurses.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama = 33.2. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 61. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 20. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Mobile = 5.6 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 1,239 individuals with a median age of 35.8 age the population dropped by -3.95% in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 1,340.97 residents per square mile of area (517.75/km²). There are average 2.4 people per household in the 76,926 households with an average household income of $35,139 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 11.40% of the available work force and has dropped -7.67% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 13.26%. The number of physicians in Mobile per 100,000 population = 206.


The annual rainfall in Mobile = 61.9 inches and the annual snowfall = 0.1 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 104. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 220. 90 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 43.5 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 28, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama which are owned by the occupant = 52.89%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 40 years with median home cost = $91,380 and home appreciation of -6.66%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $3.65 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,203 per student. There are 16.1 students for each teacher in the school, 376 students for each Librarian and 465 students for each Counselor. 5.77% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 16.23% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 9.47% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Mobile's population in Mobile County, Alabama of 1,150 residents in 1900 has increased 1,08-fold to 1,239 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 52.88% female residents and 47.12% male residents live in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama.

    As of 2020 in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama are married and the remaining 50.23% are single population.

  • 23.4 minutes is the average time that residents in Mobile require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    82.51% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 12.16% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 1.06% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 1.82% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama, 52.89% are owner-occupied homes, another 35.84% are rented apartments, and the remaining 11.27% are vacant.

  • The 51.31% of the population in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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