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City of Huntsville

  •   State: 
    Madison County
      County FIPS: 
    34°43′48″N 86°35′6″W
      Area total: 
    220.83 sq mi (571.95 km²)
      Area land: 
    219.34 sq mi (568.08 km²)
      Area water: 
    1.49 sq mi (3.87 km²)
    581 ft (177 m)
    Incorporated (town) December 9, 1811; 211 years ago ( 1811-12-09 ); Incorporated (city) February 24, 1860; 163 years ago ( 1860-02-24 )
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Huntsville, AL
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    980 residents per square mile of area (378.5/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Huntsville was founded within the Mississippi Territory in 1805 and became an incorporated town in 1811. The city developed across nearby hills north of the Tennessee River, adding textile mills in the late nineteenth century. During the war, the Army established Redstone Arsenal near here with a chemical weapons plant, and nearby related facilities. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named Huntsville to its "America's Dozen Distinctive Destinations for 2010" list. U.S. News and World Report has Huntsville as the #1 Best Place to Live in the United States in 2022-2023. Huntsville is the largest city in the five-county Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area. The Huntsville metropolitan area's population was 491,723 in 2020, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in the state after the Birmingham metropolitan area. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which had been the largest since the growth of its coal and steel industries earlier in the 20th century. In 1819, Huntsville hosted a constitutional convention in Walker Allen's large cabinet-making shop. In accordance with the new state constitution, the city became Alabama's first capital when the state was admitted to the Union. This was a temporary designation for one legislative session, before the capital was moved to more central cities. The capital was then designated for a year as the first capital, before that was moved in 1819. The first mayor of Huntsville was David Wade, who settled in 1817.


Huntsville was the first incorporated town in what is now Alabama. The city was founded in 1805 by Revolutionary War veteran John Hunt. Huntsville hosted a constitutional convention in 1819. The 4th Alabama Infantry Regiment, led by Col. Egbert J. Jones of Huntsville, distinguished itself at the Battle of Manassas/Bull Run, the first major encounter of the American Civil War. Nine generals of the war were born in or near Huntsville; five fought for the Confederacy and four for the Union. On April 11, 1862, Union troops seized the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment to sever the Confederacy's access to the Memphis & Charleston Railroad. During the Great Depression, the Wade House was measured as part of the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) for preservation of historic buildings in the government's Archive. Today only the antebellum smokehouse survives at the property. The Wade house had already been abandoned for years and was considerably deteriorated. It was torn down in 1952 and replaced by a modern home. The first mayor of the city was a black man, William "Bill" Smith, who served from 1847 to 1855. Huntsvile is now home to the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa and the Alabama Museum of History and Science, which opened in 2008. The town is located on the banks of the Big Spring, which is a tributary of the Mississippi River. The Big Spring is a popular tourist attraction, attracting visitors from all over the U.S.


Huntsville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) It experiences hot, humid summers and generally mild winters. Average yearly precipitation is more than 54 inches. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the spring, and the most severe storms occur in the spring and late fall. Huntsville lies in a region colloquially known as Dixie Alley, an area more prone to violent, long-track tornadoes than most other parts of the US. On January 21, 2010, an EF2 tornado struck Huntsville, resulting in moderate damage. On April 27, 2011, the largest tornado outbreak on record, the 2011 Super Outbreak, affected northern Alabama. The city was founded around the Big Spring, which is a typical karst spring. Many caves perforate the limestone bedrock underneath the surface, as is common inKarst areas. The National Speleological Society is headquartered in Huntsville. The following incorporated communities and census-designated places border or neighbor Huntsville:Madison (northwest), Meridianville (north), Moores Mill (northeast), New Market (nortsheast) and Redstone Arsenal (U.S. Army base, south). Huntsville also borders Marshall County in its lands in Morgan County near the unincorporated Lacey's Spring area, and Hobbs Island within the Tennessee River. There are also several uninc incorporated communities that border the city, including Harvest, Meridianville, Decatur, and Triana.


As of the 2010 census, there were 180,105 people, 77,033 households, and 45,416 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.47% White, 30.21% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 2.22% Asian, 0,06% Pacific Islander, and 1.84% from two or more races. Non-Hispanic Whites were 58% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.9% in 1970. Same-sex couple households comprised 0.5% of all households. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was2.91. The city has a population of 215,006 people, 88,930 households and 52,166 families as of the 2020 U.S. census. The population density is 861.5 inhabitants per square mile (332.6/km²). The city's population was 158,216 people, 66,742 households and 41,713 families in the 2000 census. It is located on the Mississippi River, which runs through the city's downtown area. It has an average population of 180,000 people, according to the 2010 Census, and a population density of 863.5 people per square miles (331.6 /km²) The city is home to the University of Mississippi, which was founded in 1876. It was the first college in the state, and is one of the oldest universities in the country.


Huntsville's main economic influence is derived from aerospace and military technology. Redstone Arsenal, Cummings Research Park (CRP), and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center comprise the main hubs for the area's technology-driven economy. A number of Fortune 500 companies have operations in Huntsville. Huntsville has one enclosed mall, Parkway Place, built in 2002 on the site of the former Parkway City Mall. There are several strip malls and shopping malls throughout the city. More than 25 biotechnology firms have developed in the city due to the Huntsville Biotech Initiative. The city is home to the University of Alabama, which has created a doctoral program in biotechnology to help develop scientists to support HudsonAlpha in addition to the emerging biotechnology economy in Huntsville. It is the second largest research park in the U.S. and the fourth largest in the world, after the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. It has been designated to develop NASA's future Space Launch System (SLS) The city has a population of 2.2 million. The population of Huntsville was 2.3 million in the year 2000, and is expected to reach 2.4 million by the year 2015. It had a GDP of $1.6 billion in 2010. It was the second-largest city in the state, after Huntsville, Alabama. The Huntsville area is the third-largest state in the United States, after Alabama and Mississippi. The area has an unemployment rate of 4.2%.

Arts and culture

Huntsville is home to the oldest surviving railroad depot in Alabama and one of the oldest remaining depots in the United States. The annual Panoply Arts Festival is an annual arts festival that began on May 14, 1982. Huntsville has been named one of Alabama's top ten tourism events for the last 20 years. The city's annual Maslenitsa "Spring Festival" is associated with ancient pagan traditions, the Orthodox Church, and the fifteen East-European, Baltic, Central Asian, Russian, and Southern Caucasus nations represented. It is held in Big Spring International Park and the Von Braun Center in the last weekend of April each year. The Huntsville Tourism Society consistently ranks the festival among their "Top Twenty Events" for the past 20 years, and has announced it as one of their top ten events of the year for the next ten years.


Huntsville hosts the annual AHSAA State Soccer Championship tournament finals in mid-May at the Huntsville Soccer Complex. The city is home to the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Huntsville is also home to North Alabama SC Gravity, which plays in the National Premier Soccer League. The town is also the home of the Alabama A&M Bulldogs, who play in the NCAA D-I FCS, and the Rocket City Titans of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA) Huntsville also has its own NASCAR track and a NASCAR-sanctioned stock car racing circuit. It is the site of the Southern League (Class AA) baseball for the Milwaukee Brewers, formerly affiliated with the Oakland A's. It also hosts the Southern Professional Hockey League (SPHL) and the National Indoor Football League (NPSL), as well as the USA Rugby South Div. II Division II South Division II Championship. It has also been home to a number of professional sports franchises, including the Alabama Hawks, Huntsville Stars, and Huntsville Lasers. The Huntsville Hammers are currently playing in the Professional Indoor football league (PIF) and are part of the Premier South Football League. They are also a member of the National Women's Soccer League (NWSL) The city also has a professional rugby team, the Huntsvile Rugby Club, and a professional roller derby club, the Rocket City Titans, which is a charter member of the WFTDA. In 2010, the city also hosted the inaugural Semi Pro football season.

Parks and recreation

In 2013, for the fifth time in seven years, Huntsville was named a 'Playful City USA' by KaBOOM! for their efforts to provide a variety of play opportunities for children. There are more than 60 parks within the city limits of Huntsville. The Huntsville Botanical Garden features educational programs, woodland paths, broad grassy meadows and stunning floral collections. The Land Trust of North Alabama has preserved more than 5,500 acres (22 km²) of open space, wildflower areas, wetlands, working farms, and scenic vistas in North Alabama. The Links on Redstone Arsenal has four separate 9-hole courses, a driving range, a putting and chipping green, and even play foot golf a soccer version of golf. Huntsville Country Club, an 18-hole course with dining and banquet facilities, is available for Military, NASA, and others that have base access. There is a full-scale children's playground and dog park that connects to the Indian Creek Greenway. The city's largest park is the John Hunt Park with over 400 acres (160 ha) ofopen space, tennis courts, soccer fields and walking trails. The town is home to several golf courses, including Hampton Cove and the Valley Hill Country Club in South Huntsville's Jones Valley. It is also home to the Huntsville Museum of Art, which features an eccentric, mid-century mansion and museum, an interpretive historic park depicting rural life in the 19th century and panoramic views of the city below.


The current mayor of Huntsville is Tommy Battle, who was first elected in 2008 and then re-elected in 2012, 2016, and 2020. The city has a five-member/district City Council. Council elections are staggered, meaning that Districts 2, 3, and 4 had elections in August 2018, while Districts 1 and 5 had elections simultaneously with mayoral elections in 2020. In July 2007, then Senator Barack Obama held the first fundraiser in Alabama for his presidential campaign in Huntsville. Obama ended up winning the Alabama Democratic Primary in Madison County by large margins in 2008. In the 2016 general election, Donald Trump (R) carried Madison County with 55% of the vote. With Hillary Clinton (D) receiving 38%, and Gary Johnson (L) receiving 4%.Huntsville is represented in Congress by Rep. Mo Brooks (R-5th Congressional District, AL) who won re-election in 2016 with 60% ofThe city has boards and commissions which control everything from schools and planning to museums and downtown development. The City Administrator is John Hamilton, who replaced Rex Reynolds on January 1, 2014, when Reynolds retired. In the 2008 Democratic Primary, John McCain carried Huntsville with 57% of. the vote, while Hillary Clinton received 38%. In the 2012 Republican Primary, Barack Obama received 57% and Hillary Clinton got 38%. The city is home to the University of Alabama at Huntsville, which has a reputation for being a top-ranked Historically Black Colleges and Universities.


Most K12 students in Huntsville attend Huntsville City Schools. U.S. News & World Report: 49% of high school students tested at or above the proficient level for reading, and 45% tested above that level for math. Huntsville's higher education institutions are: Alabama A&M University, J.F. Drake State Community and Technical College, Oakwood University, and the University of Alabama in Huntsvile. The city has several private Christian schools, including Saint John Paul II Catholic High School, Faith Christian Academy, and Whitesburg Christian Academy. Randolph School is the only independent, private K-12 school. Huntsvillians can also go to college at local colleges and universities, such as Athens State University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Tech, and Alabama State University. The Huntsville Hospital and Crestwood Medical Center has an accredited school of radiologic technology. It is home to the AAMU Historic District with 28 buildings and four structures listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places. It also has a hospital that is one of the nation's leading producers of black applicants to medical schools. In the 2020-2021 school year, there were 23,514 students in the Huntsville School District. The section of Huntsville in Morgan County is within the Morgan County School District, and a few parcels in Limestone County are in the Limestone District. There were 46 schools in theHuntsville School System in 2020- 2021, including 26 preschools (Pre-K) and 28 elementary schools (K5) and 14 middle schools (grades 68-9).

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama = 56.2. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 1. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 70. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Huntsville = 4.9 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 215,006 individuals with a median age of 38.6 age the population grows by 8.62% in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 980 residents per square mile of area (378.5/km²). There are average 2.23 people per household in the 74,443 households with an average household income of $46,821 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 7.60% of the available work force and has dropped -7.37% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 17.66%. The number of physicians in Huntsville per 100,000 population = 245.


The annual rainfall in Huntsville = 59.8 inches and the annual snowfall = 2.8 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 105. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 199. 91 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 32 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 33, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama which are owned by the occupant = 55.62%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 33 years with median home cost = $152,360 and home appreciation of -3.53%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $4.02 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,638 per student. There are 16 students for each teacher in the school, 400 students for each Librarian and 361 students for each Counselor. 5.94% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 23.68% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 12.94% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Huntsville's population in Madison County, Alabama of 8,068 residents in 1900 has increased 26,65-fold to 215,006 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 51.62% female residents and 48.38% male residents live in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama.

    As of 2020 in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama are married and the remaining 44.20% are single population.

  • 20.2 minutes is the average time that residents in Huntsville require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    83.77% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 10.83% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 0.45% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.43% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama, 55.62% are owner-occupied homes, another 34.46% are rented apartments, and the remaining 9.92% are vacant.

  • The 53.21% of the population in Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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